Overall tillage looked to be the most balanced sector across the sustainability pillars.

While the income is the second highest, tillage farmers will no doubt argue there is room for improvement and consistency across years.

While the average family farm income per hectare on tillage farms was €558/ha in 2020, there was a big difference between the top cohort of farmers at €886/ha and the bottom cohort at €225/ha.

Tillage fared well on environmental sustainability with a carbon footprint of 2.2t CO2e/ha, the majority of which comes from livestock on the farm.

Just 12% is estimated to come from tillage. N and P surplus, as well as ammonia emissions, were lowest on tillage farms.

Tillage farmers were at moderate risk of isolation.

Thirty-eight per cent of farmers were classified in a high-age category, but household vulnerability was low.